Key Natural Language Processing Techniques You Should Know

Key Natural Language Processing Techniques You Should Know

Table of Contents

Unlocking customer preferences and requirements hinges on harnessing data effectively. Sorting through vast datasets for analysis can be a formidable task. Advanced AI tools, particularly Natural Language Processing techniques (NLP), offer a solution. This article delves into Natural Language Processing methods and provides real-world examples to demonstrate how they can propel your business growth.

What is Natural Language Processing?

Natural Language Processing (NLP) is a branch of artificial intelligence (AI) that focuses on the interaction between computers and human language. It involves the development of algorithms and models that enable computers to understand, interpret, and generate human language in a way that is both meaningful and useful.

The AI revolution is on the horizon, with 35% of companies currently incorporating AI into their operations—a four percent increase from 2021. Furthermore, 42% are actively exploring ways to integrate AI into their business practices.

Regardless of your organization’s current state of readiness for embracing artificial intelligence and machine learning, it is advantageous to familiarize yourself with these emerging technologies. Understanding how to apply them can significantly enhance business outcomes.

A great starting point is Natural Language Processing, a potent application of machine learning technology. NLP finds utility across diverse industries, offering myriad applications. From streamlining business processes to enhancing efficiency and improving e-commerce customer experiences and brand loyalty, NLP proves versatile.

These technologies collaborate to empower computer software with the capability to process and comprehend human language akin to another human. This includes deciphering meaning, intent, and sentiment. NLP is applied across various domains, including:

Examples of Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications include:

  • Digital assistants like Siri.
  • Speech-to-text dictation software.
  • Voice-operated GPS systems.
  • Customer service chatbots.
  • Predictive text.
  • Digital voicemail.
  • Autocorrect.
  • Search autocomplete.
  • Email filters.

Moreover, businesses are progressively leveraging NLP to develop enterprise solutions aimed at simplifying processes, boosting productivity, and streamlining operations.

See more» What is Natural Language Processing (NLP) and How it Can Transform Your Business

The benefits of employing Natural Language Processing

In the contemporary business landscape, it has become commonplace for companies to gather, store, process, and analyze extensive numerical data to derive valuable insights that enhance performance.

Natural Language Processing plays a pivotal role in broadening access and empowering businesses to make informed decisions based on expansive datasets. Notably, the collection and analysis of data through natural language processing occur rapidly, presenting a marked improvement over conventional methods.

As a result, Natural Language Processing boasts several pertinent advantages in this context. Here are some key advantages of using NLP:

Improved Data Understanding and Analysis

NLP enables computers to understand and process large volumes of unstructured data, such as text documents, social media posts, or customer reviews. This allows organizations to extract valuable insights, trends, and patterns from textual data that would otherwise be time-consuming or difficult to analyze manually.

Enhanced Customer Experience

NLP powers various applications that improve customer experience. Chatbots and virtual assistants equipped with NLP can understand and respond to customer queries, providing quick and accurate support. This helps businesses handle customer inquiries more efficiently, leading to increased customer satisfaction and loyalty.

Efficient Information Retrieval

NLP techniques, such as information extraction and text classification, enable efficient retrieval of relevant information from large document collections or databases. This is particularly useful in fields like legal research, academic literature search, or content recommendation systems, where quick and accurate information retrieval is crucial.

Automated Language Translation

NLP plays a vital role in machine translation systems, enabling automated translation between different languages. This is beneficial for businesses operating globally, facilitating communication, collaboration, and expanding market reach.

Streamlined Data Entry and Processing

NLP can automate data entry tasks by extracting relevant information from documents or forms. For example, it can analyze resumes to extract candidate information or process invoices to extract important details. This saves time, reduces errors, and improves overall data processing efficiency.

Sentiment Analysis and Brand Monitoring

NLP-based sentiment analysis helps organizations monitor and understand customer opinions, sentiment, and feedback expressed on social media, review sites, or customer surveys. This information can be used to gauge public perception, improve products or services, and manage brand reputation effectively.

Assistance in Healthcare and Biomedicine

NLP techniques assist in processing and analyzing vast amounts of medical literature, patient records, and clinical notes. It helps in clinical decision support, extracting relevant information for research, and enabling personalized medicine.

Enhanced Accessibility

NLP technologies, such as speech recognition and text-to-speech synthesis, benefit individuals with disabilities by providing improved accessibility to information and services. It enables voice-controlled interfaces, closed captioning, and screen readers, making digital content more inclusive.

These benefits highlight the value of NLP in automating tasks, extracting insights from textual data, improving communication, and enhancing overall efficiency in various domains.

The Top Natural Language Processing Techniques

Natural Language Processing (NLP) stands as a multifaceted domain, demanding the adept application of various methodologies to effectively analyze and comprehend human language. In the following discourse, we delve into an exploration and elucidation of a diverse array of techniques that find commonplace utilization in the realm of NLP technology, unraveling the intricate tapestry that underlies the seamless processing of linguistic data.


Key Natural Language Processing Techniques You Should Know

Tokenization, also referred to as word segmentation, stands out as a fundamental and indispensable technique within the expansive domain of Natural Language Processing (NLP). Serving as a pivotal preprocessing step, its significance lies in the intricate process of dissecting lengthy strings of text into more manageable and meaningful units, aptly named tokens.

This transformative procedure involves the dissection of a continuous string of text into smaller constituents, wherein the resulting tokens encompass a spectrum ranging from entire words and characters to more granular subwords. Essentially functioning as the elemental building blocks of NLP, tokens play a foundational role in facilitating the seamless assimilation and comprehension of natural language by computational models.

In the nuanced landscape of NLP technology, the tokenization process assumes paramount importance, as it provides a structured framework for subsequent analyses and interpretations. By breaking down the linguistic input into discernible units, NLP models gain the ability to operate on a more granular level, navigating through the intricacies of language with enhanced precision and contextual awareness. Consequently, the Tokenization process becomes a linchpin in the efficacy of NLP models, contributing significantly to the success and accuracy of subsequent natural language processing tasks.

Stemming & lemmatization

Following the tokenization phase, the subsequent step in the preprocessing pipeline entails a pivotal decision between stemming and lemmatization techniques. These indispensable methods aim to distill the root form of words from their various morphological variations.

Key Natural Language Processing Techniques You Should Know

Consider, for instance, the term “stick,” which manifests in an assortment of forms such as “Stuck,” “Sticker,” “Sticking,” “Sticks,” and “Unstick.” Both stemming and lemmatization strive to unveil the fundamental essence of these diverse manifestations.

Stemming, a methodology within the purview of NLP, operates by excising the suffix or prefix of a word, an approach that may exhibit varying degrees of efficacy contingent on the specific word in question. For instance, while it adeptly simplifies “sticks” to its base form, it encounters challenges with words like “unstick” or “stuck.”

Contrastingly, lemmatization emerges as a more sophisticated and nuanced technique, leveraging morphological analysis to ascertain the base or root form of a word, commonly referred to as a lemma. This intricate process delves into the grammatical and contextual intricacies of language, enabling a more precise identification of the fundamental meaning of a term. Lemmatization thus represents a robust solution that surpasses the limitations encountered by stemming, offering a comprehensive and context-aware approach to root word identification in the realm of natural language processing.

Morphological segmentation

Key Natural Language Processing Techniques You Should Know

Morphological segmentation, a pivotal aspect of linguistic analysis, intricately involves the meticulous dissection of words into their constituent morphemes—the elemental units of language that encapsulate meaning. In the intricate tapestry of linguistic structure, morphemes serve as the foundational building blocks, carrying nuanced semantic significance. Notably, certain words, such as “table” and “lamp,” remain monomorphemic, comprising a single morpheme that conveys their intended meaning with singular clarity.

However, the linguistic landscape becomes more intricate with words that encapsulate multiple morphemes. A quintessential illustration of this complexity is found in the word “sunrise,” which comprises two distinct morphemes: “sun” and “rise.” This phenomenon exemplifies the multifaceted nature of language, where the fusion of morphemes contributes to the holistic understanding of word meanings.

In parallel with other linguistic preprocessing techniques such as stemming and lemmatization, morphological segmentation plays a crucial role in refining and preparing input text for subsequent analysis. By dissecting words into their morphemic constituents, this process not only aids in deciphering the intricacies of language but also lays the groundwork for more accurate and nuanced natural language processing applications. Thus, morphological segmentation emerges as a valuable tool in the arsenal of techniques employed to unlock the semantic richness embedded within human language.

Stop words removal

In the multifaceted landscape of Natural Language Processing (NLP), the elimination of stop words emerges as a crucial preprocessing step, strategically designed to extricate extraneous linguistic elements that contribute little to the substantive meaning of a text. Stop words encompass a spectrum of linguistic elements, ranging from common conjunctions like “and” and “because” to ubiquitous prepositions such as “under” and “in.”

The rationale behind this meticulous removal of stop words lies in optimizing the focus of Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems. By excising these filler words, NLP models can concentrate their cognitive resources on the lexical constituents that carry inherent semantic significance. Consequently, the resultant dataset becomes more streamlined and compact, paving the way for enhanced efficiency in processing.

Key Natural Language Processing Techniques You Should Know

It is imperative to note that while stop-word removal may not be indispensable in every NLP use case, its implementation manifests tangible benefits, particularly in applications like text classification. The reduction of irrelevant linguistic clutter not only expedites processing speed but also contributes to the precision and efficacy of NLP algorithms in discerning and categorizing textual information. This nuanced preprocessing technique thus serves as a valuable tool in refining the functionality of NLP systems, steering them towards more effective language understanding and analysis.

Text classification

Text classification serves as a comprehensive term encompassing various techniques designed to systematically organize vast quantities of unprocessed textual data. Among its diverse applications are sentiment analysis, topic modeling, and keyword extraction, each contributing to distinct facets of the classification process, which we will delve into shortly.

At its core, text classification involves the transformation of unstructured text data into a structured format, thereby facilitating subsequent analyses. This versatile approach is applicable across a wide spectrum of textual contexts, offering support for numerous organizational and categorization tasks.

Indeed, text classification plays a pivotal role in the realm of Natural Language Processing (NLP), proving indispensable in diverse applications, ranging from the identification of spam to the monitoring of brand sentiment. Its utility extends to a myriad of scenarios, where it aids in enhancing organizational efficiency and promoting a nuanced understanding of textual content.

Some noteworthy applications of text classification include:

  • Categorizing product reviews based on sentiment to streamline consumer insights.
  • Prioritizing customer emails by flagging them as more or less urgent for efficient response management.
  • Structuring content by topic, facilitating seamless navigation and retrieval of information.

In essence, text classification stands as a cornerstone in the arsenal of NLP tools, playing a pivotal role in transforming unorganized textual data into a valuable resource for informed decision-making and insightful analysis.

Sentiment analysis

Key Natural Language Processing Techniques You Should Know

Sentiment analysis, alternatively referred to as emotion AI or opinion mining, involves scrutinizing textual content to discern its overarching emotional tone, categorizing it as either positive, negative, or neutral.

Functioning as a pivotal technique within the realm of Natural Language Processing (NLP) for text classification, sentiment analysis finds widespread application in diverse contexts, with one prominent use being the examination of user-generated content. Its adaptability extends to various text genres, encompassing reviews, comments, tweets, and articles.

The Revuze platform exemplifies the implementation of sentiment analysis, employing this technique to unravel the sentiments underlying customers’ perceptions of different facets of products. By leveraging sentiment analysis, companies can gain real-time insights into consumer sentiments, enabling them to proactively address evolving needs and enhance overall customer experience (CX). This iterative process of understanding and responding to customer sentiments contributes significantly to the continual improvement of products and services, fostering a dynamic and customer-centric approach.

Topic modeling

Key Natural Language Processing Techniques You Should Know

Topic modeling stands as a methodology that systematically examines documents to unearth underlying themes and patterns, adeptly clustering interconnected expressions and word groupings to assign meaningful tags to the dataset.

This technique operates as an unsupervised machine learning process, signifying its ability to navigate through unstructured data without the prerequisite of prior categorization by human annotators. In essence, it autonomously identifies and categorizes topics within the corpus, showcasing its efficiency in discerning latent structures and relationships within textual content.

Keyword extraction

Keyword extraction stands as a methodological approach that sifts through a document, discarding superfluous filler words, and pinpointing the crux of significance embedded in essential keywords. Its primary purpose lies in the automated extraction of the pivotal words and phrases most frequently employed within a document, thereby facilitating the creation of succinct summaries and elucidating the core theme or subject matter.

This technique proves exceptionally advantageous in diverse scenarios where the goal is to pinpoint a subject of interest within a textual dataset. For instance, it proves invaluable in discerning recurrent issues in customer emails, offering a streamlined means of identifying and understanding prevalent problems that consistently arise. The utility of keyword extraction extends beyond mere summarization, serving as a potent tool for surfacing and comprehending recurring patterns or topics within textual data, fostering efficiency in information retrieval and analysis.

Text summarization

Key Natural Language Processing Techniques You Should Know


This particular NLP methodology excels in condensing textual content into a cohesive summary, proving invaluable for the extraction of pertinent information from a given source. Unlike the time-consuming process that a human would undergo to meticulously read an entire document for accurate summarization, automatic text summarization achieves this task with remarkable speed.

Two distinct approaches characterize text summarization:

  • Extraction-based

This method involves extracting pivotal phrases and words directly from the document and crafting a summary without altering the original text. The summarization process relies on the identification and extraction of key elements, preserving the essence of the source while presenting it in a more concise form.

  • Abstraction-based

In contrast, the abstraction-based technique goes beyond mere extraction. It involves the generation of new phrases and sentences that encapsulate the core content of the original document. This approach essentially entails paraphrasing the source material, offering a summary that, while faithful to the document’s essence, may express the information in a novel and rephrased manner.

The dichotomy between extraction-based and abstraction-based text summarization underscores the versatility of NLP in tailoring summarization techniques to diverse informational needs, providing a spectrum of options for efficiently distilling the essence of textual content.


Key Natural Language Processing Techniques You Should Know


Parsing involves the intricate task of unraveling the grammatical framework inherent in a sentence, discerning the cohesive associations among words to identify phrases and determining the roles of words as either the subject or object of a verb.

In the realm of Natural Language Processing (NLP), parsing serves as

a pivotal technique, furnishing supplementary contextual insights to facilitate the precise processing and analysis of textual information.

Named Entity Recognition

Key Natural Language Processing Techniques You Should Know

Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a form of information extraction that identifies and labels “named entities” using predefined keywords, such as names, locations, dates, events, and more.

Beyond merely tagging a document with keywords, NER also tracks the frequency of mentions for each named entity within a specific dataset. NER bears similarities to keyword extraction, but the extracted keywords are organized into predefined categories.

This technique proves valuable in determining how frequently a particular term or topic appears in a given dataset. For instance, NER could be applied to discern that a specific issue, designated by words like “slow” or “expensive,” recurs consistently in customer reviews.

See more» Exploring the Impact of Named Entity Recognition on Natural Language Processing


TF-IDF, an acronym for term frequency-inverse document frequency, is a statistical methodology used to assess the significance of a word within a specific document relative to a collection of documents. This technique relies on two key metrics: the frequency of a word’s occurrence in a given document and the frequency of the same word across the entire set of documents.

When a word is pervasive across all documents, it receives a lower score, even if its occurrence is frequent. Conversely, if a word is prominently featured in a single document while being infrequent in the remaining documents of the set, it attains a higher ranking. This high ranking suggests that the word holds significant relevance to that particular document.

Practical Applications of Natural Language Processing

Natural Language Processing (NLP) stands at the forefront of rapidly advancing technologies, showcasing versatile applications tailored for diverse organizational needs. The multifaceted benefits that businesses can derive from NLP encompass a spectrum of functionalities, expanding their operational efficiency and enhancing customer experiences. Among the myriad applications, some key areas where businesses can leverage NLP include:

Machine Translation

NLP empowers computers to perform intricate translations on a large scale, seamlessly converting text from a source language to a target language. This capability proves invaluable for businesses engaged in global interactions, facilitating customer support, enabling effective data mining, and even streamlining the process of publishing multilingual content.

Information Retrieval

Harnessing the power of NLP, businesses can swiftly access and retrieve pertinent information based on user queries from diverse repositories, including file servers, databases, and the vast expanse of the internet. This functionality streamlines decision-making processes and enhances the overall efficiency of information management within an organization.

Sentiment Analysis

Employing sophisticated NLP techniques, businesses can monitor and analyze sentiments associated with their brand and products. This analytical prowess aids in shaping effective customer service strategies, understanding market trends, and fine-tuning product development based on valuable insights derived from sentiment analysis.

Information Extraction

NLP facilitates the extraction of meaningful information from unstructured data, transforming it into structured, editable formats. This process is particularly beneficial for business intelligence, enabling organizations to glean actionable insights and competitive intelligence from vast and diverse data sources.

Question Answering

Leveraging NLP, businesses can implement question-answering systems that respond coherently to inquiries posed in natural human language. This capability finds applications in the development of intelligent chatbots for enhanced customer interactions and support services, contributing to a seamless and personalized user experience.

As NLP continues to evolve, its impact on diverse industries becomes increasingly profound, offering businesses a transformative toolset to navigate the complexities of the modern digital landscape. The integration of NLP technologies empowers organizations to stay agile, responsive, and competitive in an era where effective communication and data utilization are paramount.

Illustrative Examples of Natural Language Processing

Explore a selection of tangible instances illustrating how organizations can integrate Natural Language Processing (NLP) into their operational frameworks.

NLP Empowerment in ChatGPT

An exemplary manifestation of NLP’s impact is evident in ChatGPT, a widely embraced AI chatbot making waves across social media platforms. Functioning as a conversational agent, ChatGPT relies on NLP technology, specifically employing a multi-layer transformer network to generate responses that closely mimic human language. Notably, ChatGPT operates through unsupervised learning, distinguishing itself by autonomously generating responses without explicit knowledge of correct answers.

This innovative application marks a significant stride in NLP’s utility for both businesses and individuals, garnering attention for its potential to rival established platforms like Google. ChatGPT unfolds a spectrum of possibilities, extending its utility beyond mere conversation facilitation. Businesses can seamlessly incorporate ChatGPT for diverse purposes, including but not limited to customer service interactions, language translation, content summarization, and even automated content creation. The versatility of ChatGPT positions it as a dynamic tool capable of enhancing various facets of communication and information processing within the organizational landscape.

NLP for customer experience analytics

Employing Natural Language Processing (NLP) for the analysis of customer experiences presents a powerful avenue for gleaning profound insights into the sentiments and opinions expressed about a brand and its products. Through the application of sentiment analysis and text classification, companies can derive valuable information to:

Evaluate General Sentiment Towards the Brand

NLP enables organizations to gauge the overall sentiment circulating in the public domain regarding their brand. This assessment helps in understanding whether the prevailing sentiment is positive or negative, offering a crucial perspective on the brand’s public image.

Discern Customer Preferences and Dislikes

By leveraging NLP, companies can delve into customer reviews to identify specific aspects of their services or products that resonate positively with customers or, conversely, aspects that might be sources of dissatisfaction. This granular understanding aids in tailoring offerings to meet customer preferences and addressing areas that require improvement.

Anticipate Customer Preferences for New Products

NLP facilitates the extraction of insights into potential customer interest in new products. By scrutinizing customer conversations and reviews, businesses can discern emerging trends and preferences, informing strategic decisions related to product development and innovation.

Optimize Product Portfolio Management

Through NLP-driven analysis, companies can make informed decisions about scaling or retracting specific products from their portfolio. Understanding the sentiments associated with different products enables organizations to prioritize and allocate resources effectively, ensuring a balanced and responsive product strategy.

Uncover Actionable Insights for Customer Experience Enhancement

NLP empowers businesses to extract actionable insights from customer feedback. By identifying recurrent themes and sentiments, organizations can pinpoint areas for improvement in the customer experience, leading to enhanced customer satisfaction and loyalty.

For instance, consider the scenario of the spicy chocolate brand, Shock-O, launching a new product called Popping Jalapeno Chocolate. Employing an NLP-powered tool, Shock-O can meticulously analyze customer sentiments, discern whether the response is favorable or unfavorable, and identify recurring themes in reviews. This wealth of information becomes instrumental in deciding whether to continue, adjust, or discontinue the production of Popping Jalapeno Chocolate, guiding strategic choices such as tweaking the level of spiciness based on customer preferences. NLP thus emerges as a transformative tool, offering actionable intelligence to fine-tune strategies, enhance products, and ultimately elevate the overall customer experience.

NLP for customer service

The urgency for an immediate response to customer inquiries deemed essential by 90% of customers, is often hindered by the limited availability and bandwidth of human customer service representatives. To address this challenge, the adoption of NLP-powered chatbots is on the rise. These chatbots possess the capability to comprehend and analyze customer queries effectively, providing timely and accurate responses. This not only enhances customer satisfaction but also alleviates the workload on human agents.

Beyond real-time interactions, NLP extends its utility in customer service by processing and analyzing data from surveys and tickets. This functionality enables businesses to gain insights into customer issues, areas of satisfaction, dissatisfaction, and more. The extracted data becomes instrumental in enhancing overall customer happiness, thereby contributing to increased customer retention and positive word-of-mouth.

In essence, NLP emerges as a pivotal tool in transforming customer service dynamics, offering not only immediate solutions through chatbots but also valuable insights derived from customer interactions. This holistic approach positions businesses to proactively address customer needs, optimize service quality, and ultimately cultivate a loyal customer base.

See more» Natural Language Processing Customer Services: Revolutionizing Client Interaction

NLP for recruitment

HR practitioners invest significant time in scrutinizing resumes to pinpoint qualified candidates. The integration of Natural Language Processing (NLP) stands poised to streamline and enhance this exhaustive process by assuming control of the screening phase and meticulously analyzing resumes for specific keywords.

To illustrate, an NLP system could be configured to automatically flag resumes containing key terms such as “Python” or “leadership,” prompting subsequent human review. This intelligent automation not only expedites the identification of promising candidates but also elevates the quality of talent acquisition for an organization.

By leveraging NLP in the resume screening process, organizations stand to accelerate the recruitment timeline, swiftly filling open positions with individuals possessing the requisite skills and expertise. Furthermore, this technological augmentation serves a dual purpose by liberating HR professionals from the mundane aspects of resume parsing, allowing them to redirect their efforts towards more strategic and value-added tasks that demand nuanced thinking and decision-making.

In essence, the incorporation of NLP in the hiring process marks a paradigm shift, optimizing efficiency, and enabling HR professionals to allocate their time and resources judiciously for the overall benefit of the organization.

See more» Practical Natural Language Processing Examples for Business Applications

In conclusion, understanding key Natural Language Processing techniques is crucial in today’s data-driven world. These techniques, such as tokenization, stemming, and named entity recognition, enable us to extract meaningful insights from textual data. Additionally, sentiment analysis, topic modeling, and machine translation are pivotal in various industries, including customer service, healthcare, and e-commerce. By harnessing the power of NLP, we can unlock the true potential of language and revolutionize how we interact with technology and each other.

See more» Top 10 Natural Language Processing Tools in 2024

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